The Science of the Long Run

Updated: Oct 7, 2021

The long run is a staple of any ultramarathon training plan, but there is also the “longest run”. But what is long? The long run is a staple of any ultramarathon training plan, but there is also the “longest run”. The longest run is “the big one” that is meant to test your physical and mental stamina leading into your target event. However, there remains a debate over the duration of either run―what is long? Within this article, I attempted to throw some science at the concept to see if I could figure out some appropriate recommendations for runners of all abilities. We have two reasons to complete a “long run” during ultramarathon training.

  1. Physical

  2. Mental


Physical is the obvious reason for completing a long run, but it is also important to be mentally prepared for the duration you are going to spend on your feet. It is also necessary to find out how your equipment and nutrition are going to work over ultra long durations. Blisters, chafing and gastrointestinal issues can be the undoing of anyone's ultra ambitions.

One question that has never been definitely answered is how long should your long run be?

First, let’s look at fitness. There is an optimal intensity for endurance training, which is usually referred to as “zone 2”. You want to be running fast enough that there is a stress response within your muscle, but you don’t want to be running too fast that the stress is overwhelming and you are unable to recover from it (i.e., zones 3, 4, and 5).

There is enough evidence in the literature to verify that zone 2 is the optimal training zone. Zone 2 is equivalent to 75–85% VO2max, 80–85% Max HR, or 10–20% slower than your average marathon pace. VO2max or “maximal volume of oxygen uptake” is a scientific term used to reference an individuals ability to utilise oxygen while exercising. The higher your VO2max, the more oxygen you are able to use to generate the energy required to run i.e., the fitter you are. If we can agree that zone 2 is the optimal training intensity for endurance, we then need to determine what is the limit of time someone can run at zone 2.

According to global statistics, the average marathon time is 4.5 hrs, equating to an average pace of 6:24 min/km. From laboratory tests, we know that marathons are typically completed at 70–75% VO2max.

Ultramarathons, on the other hand, are typically run at 65% VO2max with a drift up to 70% VO2max due to muscular fatigue and loss of efficiency. Efficiency relates to the amount of oxygen required to run at a designated speed. Less efficient runners require more oxygen to run at a certain speed. As your running form breaks down over the course of an ultramarathon you become less efficient.

The difference in sustainable intensity between a marathon and ultramarathon means you’ll be running, on average, 14.3% slower than your average marathon pace. You can calculate your predicted ultramarathon pace by multiplying your average marathon running pace by 1.143. Note, though, that this not a race predictor, it is just a predictor of your “running” pace. Because it’s an ultramarathon there’ll be times when you are walking and stopped at aid stations all of which affect your overall average pace at the finish.

An issue arises when the pace at which you are predicted to “run” can’t actually elicit 65% VO2max because you’re not actually running. When this is the case, you’ll gain a better “return on investment” by running faster for a shorter duration.

Remember, the fitter you are the faster you can run. If you have a higher VO2max not only can you run faster, but you’ll also be able to sustain your p